The name of God the Merciful and prayers and peace for Mister
and Best of all Prophets - our Lord Mohammed son of Abdullah - Allah bless him and peace.
Beauty is an Art and Imagination in the spirits of all human beings; it is not only for women but also for men. Some
people seek for beauty for their partners, others for self-satisfaction and others for perfection. The plastic surgeries
are the only way to acquire these needs. The studies showed that the rate of such surgeries had been increased by
about eight times over the past ten years.
The Reality of Cosmetic Surgery:
By analytical Studies for Cosmetic Surgeries, the fat aspiration (liposuction) procedures are the most common wanted surgeries. In addition, other body contouring surgeries (like abdominoplasty, brachioplasty, breast surgeries ...etc), come in the second level for the common plastic surgeries all over the world. Chemical peeling, Nose-Reshaping (Rhinoplasty) and Ear-Reshaping (Otoplasty) are also common surgeries. These studies attribute the increase in demand for cosmetic surgery to several factors, including: increasing the proportion of older persons in the distribution of the population, rising incomes, as well as the new methods of plastic surgery that made it easier, safer and faster, prompting many to rush out without fear of pain or long recovery periods.
So the Questions are, that cosmetic surgeries are frivolous or luxury or a real need for improvement organic and psychological status? And what are the opinions of cosmetic surgeons, what are the opinions of Islam scientists?
Cosmetic Surgery specialist actually differs from the general surgeon, cosmetic surgeon deals with the following types of peoples who need:
1 - Cosmetic Surgeries: as reshape of nose and ear, and eyes, hair implantation, Obesity and excess skin in all over the body, breast or buttocks augmentation and reduction of huge male breast.
2 - Reconstructive Surgeries: as treating of congenital defects as cleft lip, rebuild wounded organs as hand, breast reconstruction after mastectomy, reform broken nose after an accident and removing the effects of skin distortions and scars of previous surgeries.
3 - Microscopic surgery: as re-implanting of amputated parties, tissue and muscle transfer, liver implantation, micro-vascular surgeries and peripheral nerve surgeries.
4 - Burns: as treatment of severe burns and late burn deformities and scars.
However, there are many unnecessary plastic surgeries in love with only a change of form, and harmony with the model circulated by Hollywood or the media; as much talk about the female attempts to breathe like the lips of American actress Jane Smith and similar sports stars and other, which is in essence non-core are not connected with the concealment of defects, or to address problems in the body. These types of surgeries are common in Europe and America.
In Egypt and Arab countries, the Cosmetic surgeries started to be public, especially after advancement in medical equipments and availability of well trained highly qualified Arab Plastic Surgeons, since eighties.
The Acceptable Cosmetic Surgery:
There are many conditions where plastic and cosmetic surgeries are acceptable. Allah Says in Quran: "We have created man in the best stature," and we have already mentioned that one of the categories that describe plastic surgery is the reconstruction surgeries, and God created man in the best of creation, but as a result of certain conditions or certain diseases a part may lose its form or functions, and here plastic surgeon can reconstruct these parts to regain their natural forms and functions. The origin of humanity to be beautiful, and people took the wrong idea about the topic and entered in the subject of Halal and Haraam.
The Qualified Plastic Surgeon should avoid religiously unacceptable surgeries. For example, if a person has a deviation or curvature of the nose, however, the origin of creature of the nose should be a natural harmonious, so, we can reshape his nose (Rhinoplasty). In this situation, we do not change anything in the created nose but we regain the original form. We deal with complaints, which may psychologically affect the patient or generate alienation from the others around him or from himself. So, we should solve these psychological problems before treatment of the patients' deformities.
Anthropometric Studies have stated that every part of the face (nose, mouth and ear, eye, etc...) has proportional dimensions with the other facial features. For the majority of population, these proportions are fixed. However, some people have proportions that differ from the normal ones. For example, the nose occupies middle one fifth of the facial width and the middle one third of the facial height. If the dimensions of the human nose are beyond these proportions, this nose is abnormal and may cause psychological problems. Here, there is a true need to correct this dimensions to fit the normal proportions by nose reshaping. But, if the proportions of the nose are within the normal ranges, there is no need for cosmetic surgery.
Some people consider the plastic surgeries are luxuries; however, it may be the meaning of life to others. For example, if a woman has small atrophied breasts that reduce her femininity and cause psychological problems?! Breast augmentation using an external prosthesis is the best way to regain her femininity and to solve her problem, why she can not do this operation?! The others do not consider it to be important, but for her, she may lose her husband and her life at all. On the contrary, if a woman has huge breasts, that cause back ache, she should think about breast reduction to get rid of pain.
Therefore, the vast majority of patients have cosmetic complaints effective, except for few exceptions. As we have stated in advance of such operations religious and morally acceptable and there is no deviation from the Islamic beliefs. The patient comes to us named Abdullah, also came out Abdullah is not changed, but his deformities were corrected or modified. If we will change God's creation, we will remove the nose and put it somewhere else!!
We do not think that people are generally opposed to these issues, but they are looking for reassurance; because they fear no man's land (Haraam). To say that plastic surgery is considered an interference in the trunks of creation, is to ignore the fact that the miraculous nature of creativity and begin the moment of fertilization and one cell to end after nine months of pregnancy to the thousands of billions of cells that have been developed to provide a well-thousands of jobs unique staggering, hence man's creation is only a fraction of universe beauty and creativity. The plastic surgery is to add a touch of beauty to one of these posts. We can not say that the use of air-conditioned is to interfere in God's creation. Therefore, Islam does not oppose the rights to make man-life more comfortable, productive and happy. Talk or Hadith of our Lord Mohammed bin Abdullah Allah bless him and peace says: "God loves a beautiful beauty."
Relations between plastic surgery and psychological treatment:
This issue "Is cosmetic surgery Halal or Haraam?" "i.e. Is Cosmetic Surgery is religiously legal or illegal" of concern to both the cosmetic surgeon and the patient in order to verify that they do not conflict with Islamic beliefs as it relates to the human body.
Recently, after spread of cosmetic surgeries in Islamic countries due to the propaganda in media and advanced medical technology, there have been opinions that reject these surgeries as they are not in conformity with Islamic beliefs as they change God's creation. Yet, as plastic surgeon, we can divide plastic surgeries into three categories:
Section I: (more than 60%), what is so-called complementary, compensatory, or reconstructive surgeries.
Section II: (approximately 30%), this group includes the patients who have changes that occur as a result of progress in life; such as obesity, tummy tucks, breast ptosis especially after pregnancy and lactation, here are forced to undertake the operation; in order to maintain the cohesion of the family and the regain of some of lost Fitness.
Section III: (less than 10%), this group includes the patients who seek for just changes and there are no obvious deformities. Most of these patients are not treated by the plastic surgeons, but a psychiatrist.
There is up to 5% - 10% of cosmetic surgeries which are religiously unacceptable; because their goals are only luxury and the tradition of the West. This type of cases we - as plastic surgeons - should face them with red card; where the patient comes with a model or an image and he wants to make him like its nose, mouth, or even eyes. In addition, gender transfer surgeries and conversion to the opposite sex (male to female and vice versa) is debatable issue. This problem is divided into two groups:
- The first group that includes the patients who are suffering from hormonal imbalance in the genes level. The patient's sex could be determined easily by the laboratory tests that confirm that hormonal dominance is female hormones, or vice versa. In addition, the examination of the external genitalia, and the report of the scientific committee, which do not have an interest in this surgery, could help the surgeon to make the decision.
- The second group which suffers from a moral and behavioral disorders, abnormal sexual problems, and rebellion of the values, customs and religion. This type of patients we can not deal with them, according to their whims. However, in Western countries these surgeries are not uncommon!
Therefore, the relationship between the surgery to the body and the spirit, "if the plastic surgery are necessary to correct a deformity (congenital or accident), it is acceptable."
The standards of beauty vary according to each region and race, but the logic of fashion and the anthropometry of western body, with pressure imposed by the media in the cinema and television to make the individual seek for more and more perfection, even if there are not of real benefit, so, self-awareness and the value of the spirit will be the key to get rid of this mirage.
Islamic scientists' opinions:
- Sheikh Dr. Mohamed Salah said, in Huda Channel:
- Prof. Ali Alsoa / Professor of Jurisprudence:
Amendment of creature to its original form is legally permissible; as this change is due to an abnormal incidence that interferes with the form and functions of this creature. As regard the gender transfer, organ transplantation, teeth implantation, hair transplantation, cornea transplantation, breast augmentation or reduction, nose reshaping and management of post-burn deformities, Who can determine that such a needed thing or not?
- Sheikh Gamal Kotb - Chairman of the Fatwa Committee of Al Azhar former:
He has an opinion for cosmetic surgery that is" he opposed to the word cosmetic surgery because of congenital defects, and instead preferred to say, evaluate the surgery because of defects resulting from inborn error in the diet or because of a genetic factor resulting in an increased shortage of finger or toe or so.
Sheikh Gamal has been identified the creature as the normal pattern for God's creation, which most people have, but the distortion occurs because of a defect. Islam does not prevent the enjoyment of human beauty; the Prophet Muhammad said: (God loves beauty beautiful). From religious aspect, there is no objection for reconstructive surgery; that the islamic beliefs agree with: "No Darr or Dirar" i.e. (we can do anything if it is legal and there is no harmful effect on mankind or others), where the return to normalcy and the origins of the creatures that God created people without an increase or a change of God's creation. He wonders: Is, with the development of technological and medical advances, it acceptable that we leave the disease and suffering by the patient or have a plastic surgery?!
- While the Dr. Abdul Rahman Al-Awadi - President of the Islamic Medical Association - stated that change of sex is not allowed totally in Islamic believes; as this may lead to confusion on the issue of inheritance. However, homosexual disorders should be corrected for dominant gender, but it is not allowed for normal man and these procedures are wrong and prohibited.
However, cosmetic surgery in general is not entirely forbidden as long as the surgical procedure will not change anything from God's creation. In addition, all reconstructive surgical procedures should be done without any objection.
As Regard the circumcision of girls, He said that It is regrettable that some of female circumcision is an Islamic obligation, and the Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him is the "Akhvdi not Tnehki" - i.e. little not total excision - It is the firm islamic believes that we do not allow it but if only it is a medical indication; to limit its malpractice, and protect women rights.
- Sheikh Abdul Bari Elzimzmi - one of the most prominent Islamic scholars of Morocco - said: "cosmetic surgery has two indications: one is to seek for beauty to improve the human look, and the second dealing with the congenital defect and repair of the lesion on the body after accidents. The beauty of the good demand is categorically forbidden taboo; because of the work of the devil The steps and God said in Quran the people will follow the devil way and devil said "I will mislead them, and I will create in them false desires; I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and to deface the (fair) nature created by Allah". So, cosmetic surgery is prohibited even to animals.
For these causes the Prophet prohibited any changes in features of the face if the indication is seeking for beauty. He - by Son of Masood - said, may Allah be pleased with him: "God's curse women, who extend her hair by using natural hair from other woman; who sell their hair; who remove eyebrow hair to make it thinner; who use tattoo; who make it; who widen spaces between front teeth and who seek for beauty, changing what God created.
The beauty is permissible if the treatment of a congenital defects or correction of defects after an accident as burning with fire.
- Sheikh Mohamed Hassan, Sheikh Mohamed Hussien Yaquop, Sheikh Mohamed El Areefe, Doctor Abd El Aziz Fawzan, Sheikh Mustafa El Adawy:
- Sheikh Sharawy, one of the most prominent Islamic Scientist of Egypt:
Islam's view of plastic surgery:
Every living organism has the right to enjoy health. Man as one of those creatures may get sick, and as he is the best of creatures, he has the right to seek for health to be in the best condition to devote himself to religious duties. Therefore, it was necessary to clarify those Islamic provisions for the Muslim patient, the treating physician and everyone to be aware of them; in order to get convenience with them.
Many of the Islamic religious provisions should be applied by a trusted doctor who can medicate the disease, and help the patient to get off his illness as soon as possible, to be ready to continue his normal life.
However, there are diseases which are not medical organic disease, but affect Man health. These types of diseases affect mainly the psychological state of the patient. They include congenital defects, like someone who was born with a cleft lips or six finger in hand, or it may happen to man during his life, such as accidents and burns. They affect the patient by the psychological pain which may be more harmful than organic pain. With the advances in medicine in the modern era of surgery, it has been easy to eliminate these harmful psychological pains.
Medical researches continue to reveal the secrets of the human body, and ways to ease and simplify the cosmetic surgery. This type of surgery is not a new phenomenon, but this type of surgery was widespread among Arabs and Muslims. Proof of this statement in the book "the history of medicine and pharmacology at the Arabs," on the subject of orthodontics: "If teeth grew abnormally; that make ugly look, especially with women and slaves, we try carving or extraction of these teeth"
The purpose of medicine - one of two things: the conservation of health, and the second treatment of diseases or their effects. Says Ezz Bin Abdulsalam: "medicine, such as Islamic law, designed to bring the interests of safety and wellness, and prevent the consequences of disease."
Medication in the Islamic religion is lawful. That is not different as regard the cosmetic surgery. Leaving these defects in the human body affects the psychological state and causes pains. The Prophet - peace be upon him - stated the importance of medications to strengthen the hearts and souls, the narrated in his Sunan Ibn Maajah from the Hadith of Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri said: The Messenger of Allah - peace be upon him: "If you visit a patient, ask God for him a long life, this is not something, but which is a pleasure for the patient". In this type of very Sharif treatment, the treatment by words extends to the pleasure to regain the health, helping to eliminate the illness. But if there are distortions in the body, it causes the worry and sadness; because selves always tend to self-perfection.
Summary and Conclusion:
The medicine is developed to bring the interests of safety and wellness, and prevention of harm. Anthropometric Studies have stated that every part of the face (nose, mouth and ear, eye, etc...) has proportional dimensions with the other facial features. For the majority of population, these proportions are fixed. However, some people have proportions that differ from the normal ones.
Cosmetic operations are divided into three types:
Type I: This is necessary to correct congenital defects. This type includes patients with the proportions which are not within the normal ranges.
Type II: This is necessary to correct and compensate defects in the body resulted from an accident during lifespan.
Type III: Which is frivolous or luxury and is intended to excessive standards of beauty. This type is forbidden in the Hadith.
Here, Cosmetic Surgery could be needed to the overcome first two types (I, II). However, type III is contrary to Islamic religious law.
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